Chithunzithunzi chimene Baibulo linaika chokhunza Hawaa, chinapereka maganizo olawika kwambiri kwa amayi mu myambo ya Chiyuda ndi Chikhristu. Anthu ankakhulupilira kuti mayi aliyense anatengera tchimo la mayi Hawaa pa kuphwanya lamulo kwake komanso chinyengo chake chomwe adamuchitira Adam, ndipo zotsatira zake ndizoti mayi aliyense anali osadalirika komanso woipa. Kusamba, kutenga mimba, ndi kubereka zinkaonedwa kuti ndi chilango chokha pa iwo, chifukwa cha tembelero la kulakwitsa kwamuyaya kwa mkazi.

Kuti tidziwe momwe amayi onse anapangidwira kukhala woipa kuchokera pa kulakwa kwa Hawaa (malinga ndi Baibulo), tiyeni tiwone kuchokera mu zolembedwa za ena mwa akuluakulu a Chiyuda ndi Chikhristu.

Tiyambe ndi Chipangano Chakale kuchokera mu zolembedwaa zotchedwa “Wisdom Literature”, ndipo mmenemo tikupeza kuti: “Mkazi yemwe mtima wake uli msampha komanso manja ake ali unyolo, ndi owawa kukhala naye kuposa imfa; ndipo munthu yemwe akufuna kukondweretsa Mulungu akuyenera kumuthawa mkazi otere, koma wochimwa ndithu amtsekelera; pamene ndinali kuchita kafukufuku, ndinapeza kuti mwa amuna chikwi (1000) olungama ndi mmodzi ndipo sindinapeze mkazi olungama ngakhale mmodzi” (Mlaliki 7: 26-28).

Mgawo lina la mabuku a Chiheberi omwe amapezeka mu Baibulo la Chikatolika timawerenga kuti:

“Palibe kuipa komwe kuli kwapafupi kuposa kuipa kwa mkazi… chifukwa choti tchimo linayamba ndi mkazi; tikuthokoza iye poti nchifukwa chake timayenera kufa” (Mlaliki 25:19, 24).

Aphunzitsi a Chiyuda adatchula matembelero asanu ndi anayi omwe ali pa akazi:

“Kwa mkaziyo anapatsa matemberero asanu ndi anayi kuphatikizapo imfa:

  • mavuto a magazi a kumwezi komanso magazi a unamwali,
  • mavuto a mimba,
  • mavuto akubereka,
  • mavuto a kulera ana;
  • mutu wake uli wophimbidwa monga olira nthawi zonse,
  • amabowola khutu lake monga kapolo wamuyaya kapena kapolo yemwe akutumikira mbuye wake, ameneyo sakuyenera kukhala mboni yokhulupilika poti sali mfulu, ndipo pambuyo pa chirichonse kwa iye ndi imfa basi” 2

Kufikira lero lino lino, amuna a Chiyuda otchedwa Orthodox, mu pemphero lawo lakummawa tsiku ndi tsiku amapemphera kuti: “Adalitsike Mulungu Mfumu ya chilengedwe chonse poti sanandipange ine kukhala mkazi.” Pomwe akazi, nthawi zonse amayamika Mulungu: “…pondipanga kukhala mkazi mogwirizana ndi chifuniro chake…” 3

Pemphero lina lomwe likupezeka mmabuku ambiri a mapemphero a Chiyuda ndi loti: “Alemekezeke Mulungu poti sadandilenge kukhala wachikunja (osakhala Myuda).” Mulungu atamandike poti sadandilenge kukhala mkazi. Mulungu atamandike poti sadandilenge kukhala osazindikira.” 4

Hawaa mu Chikhristu anatenga mbali yaikulu kusiyana ndi mu Chiyuda; machimo ake akuthandizira ku chikhulupiliro cha Chikhristu kuti Yesu anatumizidwa padziko lapansi chifukwa cha kusamvera kwa Hawaa. Anachimwa ndipo adanyengerera Adam kuti amutsatire. Choncho, Mulungu adathamangitsa onse awiri kumwamba, ndipo adawapititsa padziko lapansi lomwe linatembeleredwa chifukwa cha iwo. Iwo anasiya tchimo lawo lija likuyendelera kwa ana awo onse omwe akubadwa, poti Mulungu sanakhululuke. Motero, anthu onse amabadwira muuchimo.

Ndiye poyeretsa anthu kuchokera ku “tchimo lawo loyambirira”, Mulungu anayenera kupereka Yesu mwana wake, ngati nsembe kuti adzatifere pamtanda. Kotero, kulakwa kwa Hawaa komanso tchimo la mwamuna wake komanso anthu onse, ngakhalenso imfa ya Mwana wa Mulungu, zonsezi ndi chifukwa cha tchimo la Hawaa. Mu kuyankhula kwina tinena kuti, tchimo lomwe anachita mkazi mwayekha linagwetsera mibadwo yonse ya anthu mmachimo. 5

Kodi nanga ana achikazi ali pati munkhaniyi? Onsewo ndi ochimwa monga mayi wawo ndipo akuyenera kutengedwa kuti mkazi aliyense ndi ochimwa. Tamvani uthenga wolimba kuchokera kwa Paulo Woyera mu Chipangano Chatsopano:

“Mkazi ayenera kuphunzira mwa chete ndi kumvera kwathunthu” Sindimalola mkazi kuti aphunzitse kapena kukhala ndi ulamuliro pa mwamuna, ayenera kukhala chete “Pakuti Adamu adalengedwa poyamba, ndiye Hawaa. Ndipo Adamu sananyengedwe; ndiye mkazi amene adanyengedwa ndipo anakhala wochimwa” (1 Timoteo 2:11-14).

Tertullian Woyera anali wovuta kwambiri kuposa Paulo, pamene anali kulankhula ndi “alongo ake okondedwa” mchikhulupiliro, adati:

“Kodi simukudziwa kuti aliyense wa inu ndi Hawaa? Chigamulo cha Mulungu pa mtundu wanu wachikazi ndi wamuyaya ndipo siudzatha; Ndinu njira za Mdyerekezi; Ndinu omwe munaphwanya lamulo la mtengo woletsedwa; Ndinu oyambilira kunyoza lamulo la Mulungu; Ndinu amene munamusokoneza munthu yemwe satana sanali woyenera kuti amugonjetse; Munaononga mosavuta fanizo la Mulungu, yemwe ndi munthu; chifukwa cha tchimo limenelo, mwana wa Mulungu anayenera kufera pa Mtanda.”

Augustine Woyera anali wokhulupilika pofotokoza mbiri ya anthu akale, iye adalembera kwa bwenzi lake motere:

“Ndi kusiyana kwanji pakati pa mkazi wamunthu ndi mayi ake? Onsewo ndi achina Hawaa opereka mayesero, yemwe tikuyenera kusamala naye mwa mayi aliyense … Ine sindikuwona phindu lirilonse kwa mkazi kupatula ntchito yakubereka ana.”

Patapita zaka zambiri,Thomas Aquinas Woyera ankaganizabe kuti akazi ndi ofooka:

“Pokamba za chikhalidwe cha munthu, mkazi ndi opunguka ndipo chikhalidwe chake ndichosakwanira, chifukwa mbewu yamphamvu muthupi la mwamuna ndi imene imatulutsa zotsatira zamphamvu, zofanana kukhala chachimuna. Pomwe mbewu ya chikazi  imachokera mu chilema cha mphamvu zake komanso zina zakunja.”

Potsirizira pake, Martin Luther sanaonepo phindu lirilonse kuchokera mwa mkazi kupatula kuchulukitsa ana padziko basi:

“Ngati iwo atatopa kapena kufa, ziribe kanthu. Aloleni iwo afe ndikubala, chimenecho ndicho chifukwa chakupezeka kwawo pa dziko.”

Ndikubwerezanso kunena kuti amayi onse amanyozedwa chifukwa cha chithunzithunzi cha Hawaa chomwe anthu anatenga kuchokera mu Genesis. Mwachidule, chiphunzitso cha Chiyuda ndi Chikhristu pa akazi chinaipitsidwa ndi chikhulupiliro cha uchimo wa Hawaa ndi ana ake aakazi. 6

Koma tsopano tikatembenukira mbali ya Qur’an kuti tione zomwe imanena zokhunza akazi, tizindikira kuti chikhulupiliro cha Chisilamu pa akazi ndi chosiyana kwambiri ndi chi Yuda komanso Chikristu. Tailoleni Qur’an iyankhule yokha pa 33:35:

“Ndithu, Asilamu achimuna ogonjera Mulungu mokwanira, ndi Asilamu achikazi ogonjera Mulungu mokwanira; okhulupirira achimuna ndi okhulupirira achikazi; omvera achimuna ndi omvera achikazi; oona achimuna ndi oona achikazi; opirira achimuna ndi opirira achikazi; odzichepetsa achimuna ndi odzichepetsa achikazi; opereka sadaka achimuna ndi opereka sadaka achikazi; osala achimuna ndi osala achikazi; osunga umaliseche wawo (kuchiwerewere) achimuna ndi osunga umaliseche wawo achikazi; otamanda Mulungu kwambiri achimuna ndi otamanda Mulungu kwambiri achikazi, Mulungu wawakonzera chikhululuko ndi malipiro aakulu.”

Tatiyeni timvenso kuchokera pa Qur’an 9:71:

Okhulupirira aamua ndi okhulupirira aakazi, ndiabwenzi omvana pakati pawo. Amalamula zabwino ndikuletsa zoipa ndipo amapemphera swala ndi kupereka chopereka (zakaat), ndi kumvera Mulungu ndi Mtumiki wake. Awo ndi omwe Mulungu adzawachitira Chifundo. Ndithu, Mulungu Ngwamphamvu zoposa, Ngwanzeru zakuya.

Komanso pa Quran 3:195:

“Choncho Mbuye wawo adawavomereza (zopempha zawo ponena kuti): “Ndithudi, ine sindidzasokoneza khama (lantchito yabwino) kwa ochita khama mwainu, kaya atakhala mwamuna kapena mkazi, (pakuti) inu ndinu amodzi.”

Chimodzimodzi pa Qur’an 40:40:

“Amene akuchita choipa sadzalipidwa chinachake koma chofanana ndi chomwe adachita. Ndipo yemwe akuchita zabwino, mwamuna kapena mkazi, uku iye ali okhulupirira, iwowo adzalowa ku minda ya mtendere. Adzapatsidwa zopatsidwa mmenemo zopanda chiwerengero.”

Tionenso pa Qur’an 16:97:

“Amene akuchita zabwino, wamwamuna kapena wamkazi uku ali Msilamu timkhazika ndi moyo wabwino (pano padziko, ndi tsiku la Qiyama) tidzawalipira malipiro awo mochuluka kwambiri chifukwa cha zabwino zomwe ankachita.”

Zikuonekeratu kuti maganizo omwe Qur’an ikubweretsa pa akazi, sakusiyanitsa ndi amuna. Iwo onse ndi zolengedwa za Mulungu zomwe cholinga chawo chachikulu pa dziko lapansi ndi kupembedza Mbuye wawo, kuchita zabwino, ndikupewa zoipa. Ndipo iwo onse adzayesedwa moyenera. Qur’an sinafotokoze kuti mkaziyo ndi anadza monga wonyenga. Qur’an siyinanenso kuti munthu ndi fanizo la Mulungu; Iye alibe ofanana naye, ndipo amuna ndi akazi onse ndi zolengedwa zake basi.

Malinga ndi Qur’an, udindo wa amayi padziko lapansi siuli pakubereka pokha. Mayi ayenera kugwira ntchito zabwino zambiri monga momwe mwamuna achitira. Qur’an siyinanene kuti palibe mkazi oyera mtima, koma yalangiza okhulupilira onse, amayi komanso amuna, kuti atsatire chitsanzo cha amayi omwe ali abwino monga Mariam mayi wa Isa ndi mkazi wa Fir’aun:

Qur’an 66:11-13:

Ndiponso Mulungu wapereka fanizo la amene akhulupirira monga mkazi wa Firiauna (Farawo) pamene adanena: “Mbuye wanga! Ndimangireni, kwa inu, nyumba mu Jannah, ndipo ndipulumutseni kwa Firiauna ndi zochita zake, ndiponso ndipulumutseni kwa anthu oipa (ndi amtopola.)” Ndi (fanizo lina la wokhulupirira monga) Mariam mwana wa Imran amene adasunga umaliseche wake; ndipo tidauzira mmenemo mzimu wathu ndipo adavomereza mawu a Mbuye wake (omwe adali zolamula zake ndi zoletsa zake) ndi mabuku ake (amene adavumbulutsidwa kwa Aneneri ake); adali mmodzi wa opitiriza kudzichepetsa (ndi kumvera Mulungu).”

Ana Achikazi Ngochititsa Manyazi